Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Tanja Folnovic

Agronomy Expert

In previous blog post we wrote about storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. But fruits and vegetables can be also stored in many other forms, such as canned, frozen, dried or juced. Modern lifestyle and diet, which prompted the human to adequately storage a variety of fruits and other plant organs, influenced on the development and implementation of the many methods and procedures for preservation of fruits and vegetables. Technological procedures of processing of fruit and vegetables can be classified into few processing methods:

  • Traditional processing methods - drying, concentrating, heating (cooking, baking, frying) cooling, use of additives - preservatives, acidification, fermentation
  • Improved traditional methods of processing - the application of increased temperatures (sterilization, pasteurization), the application of low temperature (cooling, freezing), aseptic packaging, controlled atmosphere -CA, freeze-drying, microfiltration and membrane processes, packaging (MA and vacuum)
  • Procedures that are investigating - high voltage pulse techniques, photodynamic inactivation, microwave processing - heating, high pressure treatment, ionizing radiation, heating of electrical resistance effect and induction

Heat treatment and sterilization

One of the traditional methods of preserving process of fruits and vegetables is a thermal treatment, which involves the use of heat, ie. increased temperatures. Heat treatment is carried out by methods of sterilization, pasteurization and blanching, thus hermetically sealed packaging is used (usually made of metal, glass or plastic). Fruits, vegetables and their products represent a significant segment of the human diet, as they create the preconditions of proper nutrition. From a global point of view fruits and vegetables are present in the human diet all over the world, but it is also interesting that the relatively large producers of fruits and vegetables are developing countries.

Fruit and vegetable products

It is a large number of products that can be produced from fruits and vegetables. In the table below you can see the list of products.

Fruit products Vegetable products
frozen fruit frozen vegetables
jam vegetable juice
fruit jellies concentrated vegetable juice
pasteurized fruit pasteurized vegetables
fruit cheese sterilized vegetables
frozen pulp of the fruit frozen pulp of the fruit dried vegetables
pasteurised mash marinated vegetables
candied fruits biological canned vegetables
dried fruit vegetable sauce
fruit juice other vegetable products
fruit juice powder  
fruit syrup  
low-calorie products  

Frozen, canned or dried fruits and vegetables have a lot of benefits, such as longer shelf life, convenience, year round availability, most vitamins are retained as they are generally processed and packaged within hours of being picked, easy storage, easy preparation etc. To learn more about processing of fruit, vegetables and also cereals, check out the knowledge base in Agrivi farm management system. Start using Agrivi now.